• Change Analysis Chart

Postclassical (600-1450 C.E.)

Basic Features at Beginning of period

Key Continuities

Key Changes

Basic Features at End of Period

Reasons for Change or Continuities

Global Trade

What other trading systems existed at the beginning of the period? The Indian Ocean system is a continuity, not a change.What about the gold-salt trade? Don't you mean the Pax Mongolica?
  • Trade was very international.
  • Silk roads linked Eurasia, and goods traded hands many times along the roads.
  • There was still international trade.
  • The silk roads were still in use as major trade routes.
  • New trade routes were made, such ass the Indian Ocean routes, and old routes were expanded upon, like the silk roads.
  • Trade routes became more safe under the pax romana.
  • Trade was still very global.
  • The Silk roads bcame even more developed and the Indian Ocean routes became very widespread.
  • Traders were more likely to travel the entire length of the silk roads due to increased safety and technology.
  • Increased agricultural production due to developing technologies led to economic development. Further econnimic developements and increased urbanization led to increased trade. The major east-west trade routes, like the silk roads or the Indian Ocean routes, also developed more during this time, which led to increased international contact and safer trade routes. All of these combined served to increase global trade.


Your beginning features are quite weak. What other continuities were there?
What other major migrations were there during this time period? Discuss the decline of the great nomadic societies by the end of the period. What other causes were there?
  • lack of centralized political powers
  • Nomadic movements undisputed
  • nomads migrate into settled lands and uproot other nomadic groups
  • nomadic military skill continues to give an advantage
  • Bantu migrations end
  • Germanic migrations end
  • Settled societies find efficient ways to defend agains nomads
  • Stronger centralized states reduced the effectiveness of nomadic migrations
  • fall of classical civilizations created political vacuums and those who wished to excape other rising powers moved
  • Developing states start to weaken nomads

Gender Systems

What other beginning features were there? Discuss the decline in the status of women. Women of pastoral nomadic societies sill had relative good status. Further discuss the status of women at the end of the period. What else caused the status of women to decline.
  • women remained subordinate
  • Christianity provided for a place for women to be equal
  • women always remained subordinate
  • women of lower classes usually had more opputunities
  • religion did not greatly differentiate between sexes
  • women developed more oppurtunity in medieval towns
  • women of the cities broke out of the traditional jobs of the rural area women
  • medieval urbanization provided women with more jobs
  • women were able to participate in some urbanized jobs and were admitted into many jobs
  • continued the patriarchal form of society because of former traditions, they found men served as better leaders
  • religion always offered a safe haven for both sexes because it usually offered salvation for both
  • Urbanization led to more jobs offered to women with jobs including spinning, weaving, or sewing


There was alot of technological achievement at the beginning of the period. What other changes and continuties were there? Discuss the effects in the advancement of agricultural technologies.
  • Very little developement due to little political organization
  • trade continued to spread technology
  • silk roads and Indian ocean trade continued to play key roles
  • rapid military technology developement
  • inventions like compass, heavy plow, water mill and horse collar
  • improved technology in military, sea travel, and agriculure
  • inreased overall interations between societies
  • competition between states promoted military technology
  • increased trade and communication
  • resorrection of political organization

Labor Systems

Discuss features at the beginning further. You really didn't discuss labor in your continuities. What other major changes were there. Discuss the rise of serfdom in Europe for example.
  • agriculture was more popular due to the lack of the major growth of cities
  • was always labor organization, either on manors or in Indian guilds
  • India kept guilds throughout the entire period
  • always encouraged trade and economic growth
  • was economically the other half of agriculture
  • Europe developed a system of guilds
  • Bubonic plague cases drop in labor
  • guilds were developed
  • it promoted trade among different societies
  • labor increased with growth of cities
  • disease caused for the decline in the middle ages
  • guilds develop to regulate laws of a particular occupation
  • growth of cities increased because of the need for more labor involved products

Human Effects on the Environment

Your beginning features and continuities are good; you need more changes. Discuss the ending features further.
  • The environment had already been changed by: slash and burn, deforestisation, desertification. The more people cultivated the lands, the more they changed it. Many societies also used irrigation systems and built canals, dikes, etc. to meet their own needs.
  • People kept adapting and changing their environment, especially from developing new agricultural techniques. They continually tried to make the land more efficient.
  • The amount of farming increased and they improved already existing techniques and created new ones, for example the chinampas in the Americas.
  • Cities and urban areas also became larger and more built up.
  • As people expanded their civilizations they could adapt to almost any land that they arrived at and migrated to. They destroyed many habitats in an effort to make agriculture easier for the people.
  • Population continued to rise because of the increase in agricultural surpluses because of expansion and new agricultural techniques. As people migrated to new lands they affected those lands just as they did to the ones they migrated from. They brought their own traditions and affected the land with them.

State Systems

What about the Americas at the beginning of the period? What other continuities were there? What other changes were there? At the end of the period, the Islamic Empire had declined politically. Also, discuss the state of nomadic societies at the end of the period. What about the Americas?
  • Europe: divided into Regional kingdoms where the nobles of the land were fighting for control
  • India: They, like Europe, also were divided into small regional kingdoms.
  • China: strong system of bureaucracy helped to keep the empires together
  • Africa: divided into tribal clans
  • Religion and politics remained intertwined with one another, and rulers from both influenced the otherts, especially the Roman Catholic Church and the government of Europe.
  • In the 7th Century, Islam spread and created the Muslim Empire.
  • The Holy Roman Empire formed.
  • Africa: West-empires fromed. east- trading city-states formed along the coast.
  • The Muslim empire stretched over a vast area of land and linked many different cultures. The Muslim empire eventually overpower the Holy Roman Empire and nation-states fromed in England and France.
  • During the Ming Dynasty, China did not trust foreignors and therefor was not greatly influenced by these outside empires.
  • Nationalism and unity came about in England and France during the Hundred Years War.
  • Muslim empire grew strong and powerful and : 1. influenced Africa politics, and 2. deminshed some of the power of the Catholic Church

Demography (population)

What societies had major urban areas? Discuss "beginning" features further. Discuss continuities and changes further. For example, what areas avoided the plague?

Group grade--53F
  • There were large urban centers with many people.
  • Most towns or cities had numerous families.
  • Populations continued to rise due to agricultural improvements.
  • Populations grew in many civilizations due to increased agriculture
  • The Plague temporarily devastated the populations of most of Eurasia.
  • For the most part, global populations were considerably higher at the end of the postclassical period.
  • Agricultural production increased due to developing new technologies and methods. More agricultural surplus means more children were born.